The Final Exam is CUMULATIVE --- it will contain questions on all material presented in the course. However, the material since the third exam will receive extra (double) representation (amounting to about about 30%). Note that following the third exam we started by looking at evidence for planets around other stars. Other topics we then covered were the Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter (and Jupiter's moons). We did not cover Saturn and the outermost planets, nor the chapter on asteroids and comets, so these will not be on the test.
The Final will be much like the midterm exams : true/false, multiple choice and short answer format. The review questions at the end of the chapters will help you review the material. Below are a few sample questions which cover the material since the last exam.
1. Describe briefly how astronomers have recently discovered the existence of planets around other stars.
2. In the formation of the Earth, which component of the Earth's atmosphere did NOT result primarily from outgassing?
3. The earth's interior is hot because :
4. Plate tectonic theory explains all of the following except
5. All other things being equal, a planet is likely to have a strong magnetic field if it has
6. T/F The earth's magnetic field has reversed its polarity many times in the past.
7. The lunar mare :
8. Breccia is a kind of shattered rock found near craters on the moon.
9. The moon is thought to have been formed by being flung off from the young earth, making the basin which has become the Pacific ocean.
10. The Caloris Basin on Mercury resulted from
11. Explain, briefly, how the greenhouse effect works on Venus.
12. The ``canals'' seen on Mars by early observers were found to be
13. Why is Olympus Mons so big ?
14. The Martian atmosphere
15. The moons of Mars are
16. The rotation period of Jupiter is about
17. T/F Jupiters interior is mostly liquid helium.
18. The geological activity seen in some moons of Jupiter is due to
19. Why do the Galilean satellites show a systematic decrease of density with increasing distance from Jupiter ?
Here is a list of the major themes we have discussed in class, presented partly in question form. This should give you some idea of the range and scope of the topics. It is compelmentary to the concept list you got at the beginning of the class, and should help you review the material.
A. How have planets been found around other stars. Are planets thought to be common or rare ?
B. Review the interior structure of the earth. How do we know which parts are solid and which are liquid. Why is it hot. Why is is there a density gradient.
C. Review the theory of plate tectonics. What is the evidence for tectonics. What happens when plates collide, or when new plates form. Why do the plates move. Why is planet size a critical factor in determining if a terrestrial planet is tectonically active?
D. Review the earths atmosphere : its current composition; vertical structure and temperature profile; how has it changed over time; where did the oxygen come from?
E. What is the shape of the earth's magnetic field, both close to the earth and far from the earth. How is it generated. What properties does a planet need to have in order to have a significant magnetic field. Explain Aurora.
F. Review the overall properties of the moon. Why does it have no atmosphere and how does this affect the surface temperatures.
G. Briefly review the moon's interior, noting why it makes the moon geologically quiet. Why does the moon always present the same face towards us.
H. Review the main surface features on the moon : craters, basins, maria, highlands. Know their formation, relative ages, and rock types. Know the history of the moon, including the cratering history. Why does the surface appear much older than the earth's.
I. How did the moon form ? How is the current theory different from the three previous theories and why is it preferred.
J.Know that the current cratering rate is low but not zero, with larger impacts ever rarer. Know that every few hundred million years we can expect an devastating asteroid impact on earth, similar to the one which wiped out the dinosaurs.
K. Know the basic properties of Mercury : size and density. Does it have an atmosphere, if not why not. Is its surface more like the moon or the earth. Why does it have a (relatively) larger iron core than the Earth? Know about the Caloris Impact Basin and the Wierd Terrain on the opposite side --- how are these linked ?
L. Know that mercury's rotation is reasonantly coupled to its orbit (3 rotations in 2 orbits). In general, planets rotate at the rate they were born, UNLESS a tidal interaction with another solar system body has changed this rotation.
M. Know the basic properties of Venus : size, density, backward slow rotation. Why is it so bright in the night sky ? Know Venus' atmosphere : composition, surface pressure, temperature profile, clouds, evolution. Understand the Greenhouse effect. What are the characteristics of the Venusian surface : does it have evidence for tectonic activity, how does it get wrid of its internal heat ? Does Venus have a magnetic field, and if not why not ?
N. Know the basic properties of Mars : size, density. Why does it look red. Know the surface features found on Mars : Volcanos, Canyons, Craters and Basins, Water erosion features, polar ice caps. Is there large scale tectonics ? Know the atmosphere properties : composition, pressure, history. Did the Viking mission find evidence of Life ?
O. Mars has two moons; what are their approximate size and origin ?
P. Know the basic properties of Jupiter : size, density, rotation rate and oblateness. It is a failed star : what does this mean ? What are zones and belts and why do they occur in bands. What is the great red spot ? What is the overall composition of Jupiter ? What is the interior like : is there a surface to the liquid hydrogen zone; what is metallic hydrogen ? Why does Jupiter have such a strong magnetic field, and how do we know it is there ?
Q. Know the Galilean moons and be aware of the trend in density and surface age from the inner moon, Io, to the outer moon, Callisto. Why is there a trend in density. Why is there a trend in surface age. What is tidal heating ? Why does Io have so many active volcanoes ?
Do the 19 questions, write down your choice of answers, then check yourself with these Answers Think about the ones you missed. If you missed several, redouble your study efforts ! Also, dont forget the TA office hours in room 267 of 9am - noon (Tues, Thurs) and 3:30pm - 6:30pm (Mon, Wed, Fri). And my own office hours 2pm to 3pm (Mon, Wed, Fri).