WHITTLE: ASTR 1220, Section 001, Class No. 12060 (Spring 2012)

COURSE TOPICS AND LECTURE NOTES

Text : The Cosmic Perspective (Bennett et al).

Ch 1 & App. C : Our Place in the Universe.
Learn what the subject of astronomy is about. Gain a sense of scale and our place in the Universe. Review units of measure and powers of ten (Appendix C).

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Review of Powers of Ten and Units: PDF
Raisin Cake analog for Cosmic Expansion: html
Cosmic Zoom by 26 powers of ten: html
Alternate Zoom by 50 powers of ten: html
Movie of trip to the edge of the Universe: html; (best at high def 720 px)

Ch 5 : Light and Matter.
Our experience of light. Properties of light, waves, particles. Properties of matter, atoms. Three types of spectra. Learning about an objects composition and temperature. The Doppler effect and its use in measuring an objects motion.

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Electromagnetic wave animation: html
Electromagnetic Spectrum: html
Temperature and Phases of Water: html
Wein's Law: html
Kirchoff's laws: html
Production of Absorption Lines: html
Doppler Effect: html
Determining Velocities: html
Angular Dependence of Doppler Effect: html

Ch 6.3-4 : Modern Telescopes.
Atmospheric transparency across the electromagnetic spectrum. Telescopes for radio, ultraviolet, X-rays and Gamma rays. High-resolution imaging.

Lecture slides: see PDF for Ch 5

Ch. 14 : The Sun.
The sun as a star. Sun's structure: hydrostatic equilibrium. The sun's energy source: hydrogen (p-p chain) fusion. Energy transport from the core to the surface. Probing the interior: computer models, helioseismology and solar neutrinos. The sun's surface: sun spots and storms. Solar activity and the sunspot cycle.

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Website with some of the best movies of solar granulation and sunspots: html
Video showing solar activity: html

 

>>>>>>>>>>> Exam 1 Preparation Material: Here

 

Ch. 15 : The Properties of Stars.
Measuring star distances. The parsec and the light year. Star brightness and luminosity. Measuring star temperatures, and spectral types: OBAFGKM. Measuring star masses. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Luminosity classes: dwarfs, main sequence, giants and supergiants. Mass-Luminosity relation. Lifetimes on the main sequence. Star clusters, old and young.

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of Parallax motion: html
Animation of Eclipsing Binary: html
Generating an H-R Diagram: html
Star Masses on the Main Sequence: html
Evolution of Stars in a Cluster: html
Measuring the Age of a Star Cluster: html

Ch. 16 : Star Birth.
Since we are running behind this semester, we are omitting this topic.

Ch. 17 : The Lives of Stars. "(Star Stuff)"
The importance of a stars mass. Low Mass stars: main sequence; red giant; helium burning; planetary nebula death. High Mass stars: CNO-cycle; making elements up to iron; onion-shell structure; core collapse and supernova death. Supernova observations. The abundance of the elements. [Note: omit section 17.4 in the text].

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of Supernova Explosion to make the Crab Nebula: mov

Ch. 18 : Star corpses: White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars & Black Holes.
White Dwarf stars: size; density; the Chandrasekhar limit; Novae; supernovae. Neutron stars: size; density; gravity; pulsars; X-ray bursts. Black Holes: the event horizon; properties of black holes; evidence for blackholes. Gamma-ray bursts.

Lecture slides: PDF

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of adding mass to white dwarf: gif
Audio files for three pulsars:    Old/Slow;    Young/fast;    Spun-up/very fast.    (formats: wav; wav; au)
Animation of Lighthouse effect for pulsar: gif
Slowed video of optical crab pulsar: gif
Animation showing change in escape velocity for smaller earths: html
YouTube video of black hole accretion disk: html

Ch. 19 : Our Galaxy.
The shape and structure of the Milky Way. The orbits of stars within the galaxy: halo, bulge, disk stars. Star-gas cycle: the dynamic interstellar medium. Star formation across the galaxy. Spiral arms. Formation of the Milky Way galaxy. The galactic center: the central black hole.

Lecture slides: PDF   (9.6 MB)

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of tilting our galaxy to view its structure: html
Fly-through our galaxy and trip out to the Virgo Cluster (PBS special): mpg;   (26 MB).
Animation of formation of the Milky Way: html
Movie of infrared flaring of Sgr A* at the galactic center: gif
Reconstruction of stars orbiting the black hole at the galactic center: avi   (5.5 MB)

 

>>>>>>>>>>> Exam 2 Preparation Material: Here

 

Ch. 20 : Other Galaxies and Cosmology.
Three kinds of galaxies: Spirals, Ellipticals, Irregulars. Measuring distances to galaxies: main sequence fitting; Cepheid vairables; Tully fisher method; white-dwarf supernova method. Shapley-Curtis debate and Hubble's discovery that galaxies were outside the Milky Way. Hubble's Law: galaxy redshift proportional to distance. Cosmic expansion: estimating the cosmic age. Lookback time. Cosmological redshift. Cosmic horizon.

Lecture slides: PDF   (10 MB)

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of Supernova and calculating its distance: html
Animation of measuring galaxy redshifts and constructing the Hubble Law html
Illustrating the expanding universe with an expanding raisin cake: html

Ch. 21 : Galaxy Evolution.
Witnessing the history of galaxies by looking far away. Galaxy formation. The lives of galaxies: galaxy collisions; galaxies in clusters. Starburst galaxies. Active galaxies: quasars; radio galaxies; massive black holes; accretion disks; powerful jets. Finding supermassive black holes. [Omit: Studying the intergalactic gas using distant quasars].

Lecture slides: PDF   (8 MB)

Supplemental Materials:
Animation of the growth of structure and the first stars: mov   (6 MB)
Computer simulation of the collision and merger of two large spiral galaxies mpg   (6 MB)
Animation of a trip to the center of an active galaxy to see the central accretion disk and black hole mpg   (1 MB)
Animation of an accretion disk with a powerful jet mpg   (4.5 MB)

Ch. 22 : Dark Matter and Dark Energy.
Evidence for dark matter: galaxy rotation curves; galaxy orbits inside clusters; hot gas in clusters; gravitational lenses. What is dark matter made of? The role of dark matter in structure formation: voids, lines, clusters; galaxy flow patterns. The Universe's expansion history. The discovery of accelerating expansion: dark energy. Cosmic composition: 4% atomic; 23% dark matter; 73% dark energy. Including gravity gives zero total energy.

Lecture slides: PDF   (6 MB)

Supplemental Materials:
Computer simulation of the formation of large scale structure (3-D): mpg   (9 MB)
Computer simulation of the formation of a cluster of galaxies: mpg   (11 MB)
The Millennium Simulation of the growth of structure across 2 Gly: avi   (8 MB)
Fly through the 3-D dark matter structures in the Millennium Simulation: avi   (58 MB)

Ch. 23 : The Beginning of Time.
The Big Bang Theory. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): its spectral shape and its very slight patchiness. The creation of helium near 3 minutes. Cosmic history across the first second and the emergence of the particles. The origin of the four forces of Nature. Puzzles with the standard big bang theory. Inflation as a launching mechanism, and its solution of these puzzles. [Omit Olber's Paradox, and its solution.]

Lecture slides: PDF   (4 MB)

Additional Material shown in class on Big Bang Acoustics: PDF   (2.5 MB)

>>>>>>>>>>> Final Exam Preparation Material: Here