1 : Preliminaries   6 :   Dynamics I 11 : Star Formation  16 : Cosmology
2 : Morphology   7 :   Ellipticals 12 : Interactions 17 : Structure Growth 
3 : Surveys 8 :   Dynamics II 13 : Groups & Clusters  18 : Galaxy Formation 
4 : Lum. Functions  9 :   Gas & Dust   14 : Nuclei & BHs 19 : Reionization & IGM  
5 : Spirals 10 : Populations    15 : AGNs & Quasars 20 : Dark Matter




Under Current Construction : last update Jan 12 2013

(1) Introduction

(a) The Good News

(b) The Not-So-Good News

(c) Our Path Through the Subject


(2) Global Properties

(a) Large Scale Isotropy

(b) The Cosmological Principle

(c) Large Scale Homogeneity

(d) Small Scale Structure

(e) Expansion

(f) The Big Bang

(g) Cosmic Time

(h) Olbers' Paradox


(3) More on Expansion

(a) Expanding Coordinate Grids

(b) The Scale Factor a(t) & Comoving Coordinates

How do we treat this kind of coordinate system mathematically?
Easy, we consider the grid and its expansion separately.

(c) The Hubble Parameter: H(t)

(d) The Velocity-Distance Relation & The Hubble Law

(e) The Hubble Sphere

(f) The Link Between Redshift and Scale Factor

(g) Measuring Distances and Ho


(4) Components, & Their Densities & Pressures

(a) The Stage and its Contents

(b) Critical Density & Spatial Geometry

(c) Pressure & Equation of State Parameter, w

(d) Density Changes with Scale Factor

(e) Rates of Expansion In Each Era

(f) The Five Components

(g) Cosmic Cooling


(5) Cosmic Geometry: Robertson-Walker Metric

(a) Space-Time Geometries

(b) The Robertson-Walker Metric

(c) Simple Properties of the RW-Metric


(6) Cosmic Dynamics: the Friedmann Equations

(a) Gravity's Field Equations

(b) Cosmological Parameters

(c) The Many FRW World Models


(7) Distances & Horizons

  1. proper distances:   r   are "true" distances - the number of non-expanding rulers between objects

  2. pseudo (my term) distances:   D   are derived from certain measurements....

  3. redshift:   z   though not an explicit distance, it is our primary observable

(a) Three Proper Distances

  1. For a z = 6 QSO:   what are   r(to),   r(te),   &   c (to - te)
    There are several ways to treat this; let's use the z relations:

    The QSO was 0.18 rH,o when the light set out; it is now 1.24 rH,o; the light travelled for 0.63 tH,o.

  2. Pushing further: consider the CMB at z = 1000, we have

    We are seeing the CMB when it was closer than the Virgo cluster!
    That is the main reason physical scales appear so large on the CMB   [sec 8b].

(b) Horizons

(c) Space-Time Diagrams

(d) Energy within the Hubble Sphere


(8) Observables vs Redshift: A Toolkit

(a) Luminosity Distance

(b) Angular Diameter Distance

(c) Proper Motion Distance

(d) Surface Brightness

(e) Cosmic Volumes

(f) Summary of Relations

(g) Useful Charts


(9) Problems With the Standard Model

(a) The Flatness Problem

(b) The Horizon Problem

(c) The Monopole Problem

(d) The Structure Problem

(e) The Existance Problem

(f) The Expansion Problem


(10) Inflation & Its Solutions

(a) Virtues of Accelerated Expansion

(b) Dynamics of Scalar Fields

(c) Creating Perturbations

(d) Observational Tests of Inflation

PDF of powerpoint lecture slides on Inflation (4.4 Mb): here.

PDF of powerpoint lecture slides on Early Universe (4.7 Mb): here.

PDF of powerpoint lecture slides on CMB (11.4 Mb): here.

PDF of powerpoint lecture slides on Growth of Structure (4.8 Mb): here.


(11) The First Three Minutes

Some useful figures: [images]

On the limits of extragalactic astronomy, so this will be brief


(12) Recombination & the CMB

Some useful figures: [images]

Some useful figures: [images]