- Physical properties of all satellites
- Densities of saturnian satellites
- Near IR Spectra of rings and water ice

- Saturn's Satellites (minus Titan)

II. Photometric Basics

- Viewing Geometry
- Angles of Incidence, Emission, and Phase
- Scattering Angle

- Albedo
- Geometric Albedo (Physical Albedo) - Ratio of a satellite's brightness
at zero degrees phase angle to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing
*disk*with the same position and apparent size as the satellite. (i=e=*a*=0) - Bond Albedo (Spherical Albedo) - Fraction of the total incident light
reflected in all directions by a
*spherical*body.

- Geometric Albedo (Physical Albedo) - Ratio of a satellite's brightness
at zero degrees phase angle to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing

III. Scattering Properties of the Moon

- Only satellite which we can observe at (nearly) all phase angles.
- Backscattering
- Fine Lunar Soil
- AstronautFootprint detail
- Deeper Footprints near crater rim
- LEM Footpad on lunar soil

- Opposition Effect
- Around the LEM shadow
- Around the astronaut's shadow (also note the darker soil in the background where the astronauts have walked)

Before the Apollo missions, the goal was to determine what the landing surface was going to be like. How large would the particles be? Like Gravel? Sand? Would it be porous? Would the LEM sink?

Lunar Photometric Properties revealed in Apollo Photos

IV. Scattering Properties of Icy Satellites

- Empirical Equations
- Lambert's Law
- Minnaert's Law

- Equation's Based Upon Radiative Transfer
- Lommel-Seeliger Equation
- With Single Particle Scattering Function (Henyey-Greenstein)

- Hapke's Equation
- Single Scattering Albedo, w
- Opposition Surge Parameters
- Regolith Compaction, h
- Opposition Surge Amplitude, Bo

- Single Particle Phase Function (Henyey-Greenstein), g
- Macroscopic Roughness, Theta-Bar
- Mean topographic slope angle at some scale below that of the
resolution of the spacecraft image, but higher than that of the
particles themselves.

- Lommel-Seeliger Equation
- Application of Hapke's Model
Saturn's Rings in Backscatter and Forward Scatter

Uranus' Rings in Backscatter and Forward Scatter (172 degrees phase)